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Julian & Gregorian Calendar The Calendar, the Nativity, and the Kingdom and Coming of Christ Alexandar Philip - 1921 The Calendar: Its History, Structure and Improvement Samuel Butcher - 1877 The Ecclesiastical Calendar "And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifested in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen of angels, preached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into glory." N. Warren 1868 The Holidays: Christmas, Easter, and Whitsuntide John Chrysostom, Gregory Nyssa, Gregory Nazianus The Earliest Greek Patristic Orations on the Nativity with Translations Epiphanius of Cpress THE PANARION The Chronology of Christ's Nativity, Baptism, and Ministry The birth of Christ is, perhaps, the single most important event in history, supassed only by the cross. Determining the year of Jesus’ birth this way is comparatively simple and straightforward because Luke has tied Jesus’ age to a well known event in history; viz., the accession of Tiberius. It is clear that the sacred calendar began with the first of Nisan upon the new moon at the vernal equinox (March/April). 12:2 et seq.) Also, it seems that the first of Tishri, the seventh month (Sept./Oct.), was the new year for purposes of the courses of priests (I Kng. However, the children of ) Hence, unless it can be positively demonstrated that Solomon did not accede the throne in Nisan, there is no basis for concluding this verse is an instance of counting official, calendar years as opposed to actual years.The Nativity marks the time when the reign of sin and death began to be annulled and the way opened for man’s reconciliation to his Maker. Other events recorded in scripture relevant to this discussion are more problematic. 170-240) – Julius Africanus wrote a series of “chronographies,” most of which have been lost, but of which we possess extensive extracts and quotes, including Eusebius. Moreover, even if the first of Nisan marked the new year for purposes of enumerating the regnal year of a sitting king, this would not prove that non-accession reckoning was used, for the accession method also changes the regnal years new year’s day.
The announcement “He is risen” signaled that death had been conquered and the Atonement accomplished. Although the date of the Savior’s resurrection has been the subject of careful study for centuries, there has not been agreement among scholars on the day of the month or even the year it occurred.The secularisation that such a shift implied, allied to new evidence from non-textual sources concerning the possible dating of the creation, gradually began to throw doubt on the primacy of the Bible in chronological studies.This article offers a survey of Biblical chronology in Britain from James Usshers and in its English translation in 1658, James Ussher, Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of Ireland, the most famous of British Biblical chronologists, asserts that contrary to what Ptolemy (c.90 CE – c.168 CE), century CE), and even the French Jesuit Dionysius Petavius (Denis Pétau) (1583-1632) had said, it was possible to come to a precise knowledge of Biblical chronology and so of the history of the world.The years of our calendar are thus numbered from the Savior’s birth, as well they should. Because of their obscurity, the census of Quirinius and the death of Herod, which occurred at or near the time of Jesus’ birth, are more difficult to identify in history and therefore present greater challenge. Africanus gives the number of from years from Adam to the first year of Cyrus as 4943 years. Thus, the Bible cannot guide us here or shed light on what Josephus may have done.If temporal kingdoms mark the passage of time from the ascension of earth’s illustrious monarchs, how much more ought the sons of Adam to mark time from the birth of the King of kings and Lord of lords? Nevertheless, using Luke’s account as a baseline to judge the accuracy of our work, it can be shown from other sources that Jesus in fact was born in 2 B. Received tradition among the church fathers holds that Jesus was born 3/2 B. It is not until recent times that this has been challenged, mostly upon the basis of the asserted date of Herod’s death (below). 198) – “In the forty-first year of the empire of Augustus, when he has been reigning twenty-eight years after the death of Cleopatra, the Christ is born.” (Answer to the Jews, chpt VIII) Tertullian places the birth of Christ at 3/2 B. He further states that Cyrus ascended the throne in the first year of the fifty-fifth Olympiad (Ol. In the end, there is no proof Josephus used inclusive, non-accession reckoning. But the question remains, Why, if normal reckoning would suggest a date of 3 B. for Herod’s death, have men sought to stretch Herod’s death to 4 B. The answer has to do with a lunar eclipse near the time of Herod’s death.